1. Water/Electrolyte Balance Table

    One would think that with only two components to consider - water and electrolytes - the solutions to stay in balance would be fairly simple. Unfortunately, the situation is actually complex. more »

  2. Sodium and Dehydration

    King knows that even experienced runners sometimes don't practice common sense guidelines - even if they're aware of the potential dangers. Therefore, with the ultra-marathon season in full swing and temperatures rising as summer approaches, consider King's gospel of sodium and hydration. more »

  3. Over-hydration - Too much of a good thing?

    Little has been made of this problem in the past, but now we know that over-hydration can cause very serious problems. Witness the woman in California who died after a contest to see who could drink the most water without urination, and the death of a female runner at the 2002 Boston marathon due to over-hydration. more »

  4. Fighting Nausea Demons in an Ultra

    Having found solutions for energy and electrolyte maintenance during a run, I wanted to study the nausea that we often see in ultras. If we can understand and solve that problem, we will have come a long way to making our events more successful, and enjoyable. more »

  5. Endocrine System Depletion

    When ultrarunners think of running-related injuries, they usually think of conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system: the bones, the muscles, and the joints. Ultrarunning however, is strenuous on other parts of the body as well, and can lead to deficiencies in immune function, disturbances in the basic senses, or problems in responding to everyday stress. more »

  6. Blisters, Black Toenails and Sodium

    The layman thinks it is hard to run an ultra because of the great distances involved - I get tired just driving that far. Yet foot problems and stomach woes are more threatening to the ultra runner than covering a lot of miles. more »